Lean Manufacturing: Eliminating the 8 Hidden Wastes – Part 1 of 8. The D in DOWNTIME
Some waste exists in every system. From manufacturing and assembly, to hospitality, healthcare, transportation, and social services, some waste is hidden within all processes. Identifying and eliminating these hidden wastes saves millions of dollars every year for those organizations that have embraced and continuously use Lean assessments. These wastes fall into eight basic categories: Defects and rework, Over-production, Waiting, Non-utilized resources, Transportation, Inventory, Motion, and Excess processing. As listed here, the 8 wastes are most easily remembered using the acronym “DOWNTIME“.
Defect and rework waste happens when we do not have robust preventive systems that include Mistake Proofing, or Poka-Yoke, techniques. When we cause a defect or an error and pass it on to the next operation, or worse, pass it on to the customer, we are accepting rework as part of the process. We lose money when something is manufactured, assembled or serviced twice, while our customer will only pay us once for the goods or service.
LOOK FOR defective, partial or un-completed products or services and completed units that are re-worked or thrown away. Stacks and piles of items anywhere in the process are good indicators of waste.
REDUCE BY improving Visual Controls and initiating more complete Standard Operation Procedures. Implement Mistake Proofing or Poka-Yokes at the source or the place in the process where errors occur.
Visual Controls can help employees monitor the status of production or services at a glance and help to identify developing bottlenecks that will need to be cleared to keep operations running smoothly. Managers can keep employees at all levels informed of current production schedules, performance levels and accomplishments with large colorful Visual Controls. Worker assignments, qualifications, training levels and suggestions can be displayed to improve morale and give recognition using Visual Controls.
Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) must be simple, user friendly and helpful tools, not unnecessary burdens. Inputs from all areas of the organization need to be formed together to supply all of the information required for doing the job correctly the first time. The ultimate goal of an SOP is to document the best way to perform a job for your situation of materials, equipment, location and people. The SOP should be written specifically for your situation. This will assure that you really are doing the work in the best way – at least until the next improvement come along.
Mistake Proofing, or Poka-Yoke, is the method of applying techniques to eliminate the possibility of errors occurring. Poka-yoke (poh-kah yoh-keh) or more literally avoiding (yokeru) inadvertent errors (poka) was coined in Japan during the 1960s by Shigeo Shingo, a pioneer of the Toyota Production System. Ideally, poka-yokes ensure that proper conditions exist before actually executing a process step, preventing defects from occurring in the first place. Where this is not possible, poka-yokes perform a detective function, eliminating defects in the process as early as possible. Workers, engineers and managers work together to establish procedures and design devices to prevent errors from occurring at their source of origin. The most economical and least costly time and place to detect and prevent errors is at the start of the process.
Can a substandard product or service be produced or performed and passed on to the next step in your processes?
Watch for upcoming articles on Lean Manufacturing and the remaining Hidden Wastes of DOWNTIME…
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